ESCUELA SECUNDARIA GENERAL
"MANUEL JOSÉ OTHÓN" EN CERRITOS, S.L.P. MEXICO
UNIT 2: RULES AND REGULATIONS
EL VERBO 'MUST' EXPRESA UNA PROHIBICIÓN U OBLIGACIÓN FUERTE ASÍ COMO CIERTA CERTEZA: I MUST GO. SHE MUST BE CRAZY.
EN ESPAÑOL SIGNIFICA: DEBO, DEBO DE.
I MUST - DEBO / DEBO DE
I must go to the library.
Debo ir a la biblioteca.
You must stay here until I come back.
Debes quedarte aquí hasta que yo vuelva.
We must be at the airport at three o'clock.
Debemos estar en el aeropuerto a las tres.
Everybody must wear a uniform.
Todos deben usar uniforme.
You must be joking!
¡Deben de estar bromeando!
Julia must be in Paris by now.
Julia ya debe de estar en París.
It must be noon already.
Ya debe de ser mediodía.
You must not talk to strangers.
No debes hablar con extraños.
We mustn't make noise.
No debemos hacer ruido.
Mr. Williams must not smoke.
El señor Williams no debe fumar.
Must we do everything today?
¿Debemos hacer todo hoy?
Must you go so soon?
¿Debes irte tan pronto?
Must or Have to
We can use 'must' to show that we are certain something is true. We are making a logical deduction based upon some clear evidence or reason.
· There's no heating on. You must be freezing.
· You must be worried that she is so late coming home.
We also use 'must' to express a strong obligation. When we use 'must' this usually means that some personal circumstance makes the obligation necessary (and the speaker almost certainly agrees with the obligation.)
· I must go to bed earlier.
· They must do something about it.
We can also use 'have to' to express a strong obligation. When we use 'have to' this usually means that some external circumstance makes the obligation necessary.
· I have to arrive at work at 9 sharp. My boss is very strict.
· We have to give him our answer today or lose out on the contract.
In British English, we often use 'have got to' to mean the same as 'have to'.
· I've got to take this book back to the library or I'll get a fine.
· We've got to finish now as somebody else needs this room.
We can also use ' will have to' to talk about strong obligations. Like 'must' this usually means that that some personal circumstance makes the obligation necessary. (Remember that 'will' is often used to show 'willingness'.)
· I'll have to speak to him.
· We'll have to have lunch and catch up on all the gossip.
As you can see, the differences between the present forms are sometimes very small and very subtle. However, there is a huge difference in the negative forms.
· We use 'mustn't' to express strong obligations NOT to do something.
· We mustn't talk about it. It's confidential.
We use 'don't have to' (or 'haven't got to' in British English) to state that there is NO obligation or necessity.
· We don't have to get there on time. The boss is away today.
· I don't have to listen to this. I'm leaving.